Hand In Hand
Online Acmers
Problem Archive
Realtime Judge Status
Authors Ranklist
     C/C++/Java Exams     
ACM Steps
Go to Job
Contest LiveCast
Best Coder beta
VIP | STD Contests
    DIY | Web-DIY beta
Author ID 
 Register new ID

Series 1

Time Limit: 2000/1000 MS (Java/Others)    Memory Limit: 262144/262144 K (Java/Others)
Total Submission(s): 2173    Accepted Submission(s): 689

Problem Description
Let A be an integral series {A1, A2, . . . , An}.

The zero-order series of A is A itself.

The first-order series of A is {B1, B2, . . . , Bn-1},where Bi = Ai+1 - Ai.

The ith-order series of A is the first-order series of its (i - 1)th-order series (2<=i<=n - 1).

Obviously, the (n - 1)th-order series of A is a single integer. Given A, figure out that integer.

The input consists of several test cases. The first line of input gives the number of test cases T (T<=10).

For each test case:
The first line contains a single integer n(1<=n<=3000), which denotes the length of series A.
The second line consists of n integers, describing A1, A2, . . . , An. (0<=Ai<=105)

For each test case, output the required integer in a line.

Sample Input
2 3 1 2 3 4 1 5 7 2

Sample Output
0 -5



Statistic | Submit | Discuss | Note
Hangzhou Dianzi University Online Judge 3.0
Copyright © 2005-2024 HDU ACM Team. All Rights Reserved.
Designer & Developer : Wang Rongtao LinLe GaoJie GanLu
Total 0.000000(s) query 1, Server time : 2024-07-14 10:24:10, Gzip enabled